DLR-Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre

Selected Figures of Program "Pollutants of Airtraffic"


Here are selected colour figures as published and explained in

Schumann, U., A. Chlond, A. Ebel, B. Kärcher, H. Pak, H. Schlager, A. Schmitt, P. Wendling (Eds.): Pollutants from air traffic - Results of atmospheric research 1992-1997. DLR-Mitteilung 97-04, 291 pp. DLR, Köln, Germany, 1997.

Anybody interested in the figures may use them but is asked to refer to DLR and the given reference. The cited references are given in that report.

Copyright by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR).

The figures are available as


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Figure 1: Vertically integrated NOx emissions from aircraft including military according to the DLR2 data set (see Schmitt et al., DLR-Mitt. 97-04). Global emissions: 0.56 Tg(N) yr-1.


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Figure 2: Zonal mean NOx emissions from aircraft including military according to the DLR2 data set, mean tropopause altitude, and indication of main physical processes which influence the NOx content in the atmosphere.


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Figure 3: NOx emissions from surface fuel combustion (Dignon, 1992). Global emissions: 22 Tg(N) yr-1.


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Figure 4: NOx emissions from biomass burning (Lee et al., 1997). Global emissions: 5.3 Tg(N) yr-1.


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Figure 5: NOx production from soils (Lee et al., 1997). Global emissions: 3.9 Tg(N) yr-1.


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Figure 6: Vertically integrated NOx production from lightning (Lee et al., 1997). Global emissions: 5 Tg(N) yr-1.


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Figure 7: Vertically integrated NOx emissions [g(NO2)/km2] from aircraft according to the DLR2 data set summed over all periods 0 UTC to 2 UTC in March 1992, representing part of the diurnal cycle (see Schmitt et al., DLR-Mitt. 97-04).


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Figure 8: January (left) and July (right) mean NOx volume mixing ratio at 200 hPa (about 11.7 km altitude) due to all NOx sources (Köhler et al., 1997).


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Figure 9: January (left) and July (right) mean NOx volume mixing ratio at 200 hPa (about 11.7 km altitude) due NOx emission from aircraft (1991/1992) (Köhler et al., 1997).


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Figure 10: January (left) and July (right) mean relative contribution of aircraft emissions (1991/1992) to the total concentration of NOx at 200 hPa (about 11.7 km altitude) (Köhler et al., 1997).


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Figure 11: January (left) and July (right) zonal mean ozone changes due to aircraft emissions (1991/1992) (Dameris et al., 1997).


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Figure 12: Change of zonal mean July temperatures [K] due to various aircraft induced ozone changes (multiple of the ozone result of the MOGUNTIA model). Shading indicates areas, where a univariate t-test exceeds the 95% significance level (as in Sausen et al., 1997, DLR-Mitt. 97-04).


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Figure 13: July response of zonal mean temperature to a prescribed local enhancement of high clouds (additive cloud cover of 2, 5, or 10% of the earth surface within main traffic regions; Ponater et al., 1996).


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Figure 14: Contrails over central Europe on 4th May 1995 at 7:43 UTC based on NOAA12 AVHRR satellite data (Mannstein et al., 1997).


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Figure 15: Result of the contrail analysis algorithm applied to the satellite data shown in figure 14. Black pixels: line-shaped contrails; grey pixels: neighbours to contrail pixels, i.e., the air region conditioned for persistent contrail formation (Mannstein et al., 1997).


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Figure 16: In the year 1996 out of 326 noon values of the NOAA-14 recognized line-shaped contrails. For a clearer presentation only narrow contrails are shown (Mannstein et al., 1997).


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Figure 17: Annual mean contrail coverage at noon over mid Europe in 1996 as determined from NOAA-14 satellite data (Mannstein et al., 1997).


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Figure 18: Backscatter contour plots of cross-sections of an aging contrail measured by lidar at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (see Jäger et al., DLR-Mitt. 97-04).


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Figure 19: Side-view of emissions of a B474 aircraft. Left: videopicture of a contrail, right: cut of the simulated tracer distribution (Gerz et al., 1997).


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Figure 20: Research aircraft FALCON of the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen with instruments (turbulence noseboom, gas-inlets, optical particle detectors) (Petzold et al., 1997).


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Figure 21: The ATTAS aircraft (photo: DLR Braunschweig).


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Figure 22: The ATTAS aircraft seen from the Falcon at about 100 m distance. The sulfur content was 170 (5500) ppm in the left (right) engine (Schumann et al., 1996).


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Figure 23: Lufthansa Airbus A310 seen from the Falcon at about 200 m distance (Petzold et al., 1997).


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Figure 24: Airbus 310 as seen from the Falcon (photo: Reinhold Busen).


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Figure 25: Perspective view of the tropopause (blue colours) at 0000 UTC 12 October 1993, defined by 1.6 potential vorticity units and envelope of tracer distribution (red-brown colours) resulting from aircraft emissions released the day before (see Petry, Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie, Universität Köln, DLR-Mitt. 97-04, 1997)


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