Chemistry-Climate Model Validation
Activity for SPARC



The Figures below are updates of the figures published in Eyring, V., N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Brühl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, Assessment of temperature, trace species and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22308, doi:10.1029/2006JD007327, 2006.

They include new simulations stored at BADC.
Contact for questions:
Veronika Eyring

New model runs since Eyring et al. 2006, 2007:
  • MRInew (REF1, nyears=25, 1980-2004)
  • ULAQnew (REF2, nyears=91, 1960-2050)
  • E39CA (REF1, nyears=20, 1980-1999); Note: E39C-ATTILA (E39CA) files not yet at BADC, results preliminary.
See BADC directory /project_spaces/ccmval/NEW_RUNS/

Polar temperature biases
Figure 1. Climatological mean temperature 
biases for 60°-90°N (upper panels) and
60°-90°S (lower panels) for the winter (left)
and spring seasons (right). The climatological
means for the CCMs, ERA-40 and NCEP
data from 1980 to 1999 and for UKMO from
1992 to 2001 are included. Biases are
relative to ERA-40 re-analyses.
The grey area shows ERA-40 plus and
minus 1 standard deviation (
s) about the
climatological mean.

Note: The multi-model mean is calculated from
the same CCMs than in Eyring et al., 2006.

Global annual mean T
Figure 1b. Global annual mean temperatures
Descent zero zonal mean wind
Figure 2. Descent of the zero zonal mean 
wind lines at 60°S based on the climatological
mean annual cycle calculated from the monthly
mean zonal mean winds. The grey area indicates
the variation of the timing in the transition from
westerlies to easterlies for ERA-40 due to a
plus or minus one interannual standard deviation
in the mean annual cycle. Tick marks refer to
the first of the month and climatological
means are calculated as in Figure 1.

Heatflux versus Temperature

Figure 3. Upper panels: Heat fluxes (v'T') at
100 hPa (averaged over 40°N to 80°N
for January and February) versus temperatures at
50 hPa (averaged over 60°N to 90°N for
February and March). Shown are the twenty
years from 1980 to 1999 for each model
simulation compared to observations from
ERA-40 re-analyses. Lower panels: Same for
southern hemisphere, but  heat fluxes (
at 100 hPa averaged over 40°S to 80°S
for July and August versus temperatures at
50 hPa averaged over 60°S to 90°S for
August and September.

New models not yet included

T trend time series
Figure 4. Modeled and observed time series of 
monthly-mean temperature anomalies at 50 hPa
from the CCMs, ERA-40 re-analyses and
RATPAC. The temperature anomalies are
calculated with respect to a mean reference
period between 1980 and 1989 using three-month
averages for February to April in the polar northern
hemisphere (60°-90°N, upper panel), September
to November in the polar southern hemisphere
(60°-90°S, middle panel) and annual averages for
the global anomalies (lower panel). For the polar
plots a three year smoothing window has been
MRI, SOCOL, ULAQ and UMETRAC are shown
with dashed lines, all others CCMs with solid lines.
A linear temperature trend in K/decade is calculated
for each model using data between 1980 and 1999.
The temperature trend is given next to the name of
each participating model.
Figure 5. Climatological zonal-mean CH4 mixing 
ratios from the CCMs and HALOE in ppmv.
Upper panels (a-c): Vertical profiles at 80°N in
March (left), 0° in March (middle) and 80°S in
October (right). Lower panels (d,e): Latitudinal
profiles at 50 hPa in March (left) and October (right).
The grey area shows HALOE plus and minus 1
standard deviation (
s) about the climatological
zonal mean.

Figure 6. As in Figure 5, but for H2O in ppmv.

Equatorial T 100 hpa  Water Vapor 100 hPa tropics
Figure 7. Seasonal variation of climatological means 
at 100 hPa at the equator for temperature (left panel)
and water vapor (right panel). Modeled fields for the
1990s are compared to the 1991-2002 HALOE
water vapor climatology and the 1992-2001
temperature climatology from UKMO and ERA-40.
Tape Recorder

Figure 8.  Time-height sections of water vapor
mixing ratio shown as the deviation (in parts per
million by volume) from the time-mean profile,
averaged between 10°S and 10°N
(‘tape recorder’) for all CCMs and HALOE
data. Two consecutive cycles are shown.

Figure9 Taperecorder new
Figure 9.  Vertical variation of (a) amplitude and
(b) phase lag of annual cycle of water vapor
averaged between 10°S and 10°N. The amplitude
is normalized to unity and phase lag is set to zero
at the level (between 16 and 20 km) where the
amplitude is maximum, which varies between
the CCMs. The vertical axis in both plots is the
distance from level of maximum amplitude.
Solid circles are HALOE observations.
Age of Air
Figure 10. Mean age of air at (a) 0.5, (b) 10, 
and (c) 50 hPa. Symbols correspond to
observations, see text for details.

Figure 11.  As in Figure 5, but for HCl in ppbv and vertical profiles are shown at (a) 80°N in April (b) 0° in April and (c) 80°S in November. Lower panels show latitudinal profiles at 50 hPa in (d) April and (e) November.

Figure12 Cly new

Figure 12. Left: Climatological mean vertical profiles (1990 to 1999) at 80°S in November for Cly in ppbv. Right: Time series of October mean Antarctic Cly at 80°S from CCM model simulations. Estimates of Cly from HALOE HCl measurements in 1992 [Douglass et al., 1995; Santee et al., 1996] and Aura MLS HCl in 2005 [M. Santee, pers. communication] are shown in addition.


Figure 13.  As in Figure 5, but for O3 in ppmv.

Total Ozone Climatology
Figure 14. Modeled total column ozone climatologies (1980 to 1999) compared to merged satellite and NIWA assimilated data.

Figure 15: Left panels: (a) seasonal (February to April) total column ozone anomalies for the Arctic (60oN-90oN), (b) seasonal (September to November) total column ozone anomalies for the Antarctic (90oS-60oS), and (c) annual total column ozone anomalies sets for the whole globe (90oS-90oN) from CCMs and four observational data sets. The CCM results are shown with colored lines while the mean and range of the four observational data sets are shown as a thick black line and grey shaded area respectively. The anomalies are calculated with the method described in Appendix A. The seasonal anomaly time series shown in panel (a) and (b) have been smoothed by applying a 1:2:1 filter iteratively five times. The filter width is reduced to one at the ends of the time series. The annual global anomalies shown in panel (c) are unsmoothed. Right panels: detrended mean annual cycles for each model (1980 to 1989) and the mean and range of the observations.

Last modified:  27 July 2007

by Veronika Eyring


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